The body of the wine glass determines how much air reaches the surface of the wine and how quickly the wine warms to room temperature.
Most heat transfer in a wine glass happens in the vertical direction. Liquids arrange in layers, the top being the least dense and warmest, and the bottom being the most dense and coldest. If a wine glass is tall & narrow, only the small top surface warms up from surroundings, and the the bottom stays cold. One because the warmer top is a larger distance from the colder bottom, and two because each density layer has less surface area in contact with the warmer wine layer above it.
Wine glasses with narrow bodies keep wine cold longer, so they are used to serve chilled wine.
Allow less air to interact with the wine, keeping the aromas and flavors fresh
Good for serving wine with lower tannins, as they soften tannins slowly
Wine glasses with wide bodies warm to room temperature more quickly, so they are used to serve cellar or room temperature wine.
Allow more air to interact with the wine, bringing out bold flavors and aromas that change over time
Good for serving wine with higher tannins, as they soften tannins quickly
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